Definitions

  • Aggressor/Perpetrator: One or more students or a member of the school staff including, but  not limited to an educator, an administrator, school nurse, cafeteria worker, custodian, bus driver, athletic coach, advisor to an extracurricular activity, paraprofessional or other school staff.

     

    Bullying: The Lowell Public Schools Bullying Policy (File: JICFB) pursuant to Massachusetts General Law (MGL Chapter 86 of the Acts of 2014 which amended Chapter 92 of the Acts of 2010) specifically defines bullying as the repeated use by one or more students or by a member of the school staff including, but  not limited to an educator, an administrator, school nurse, cafeteria worker, custodian, bus driver, athletic coach, advisor to an extracurricular activity, paraprofessional, or other school staff of a written, verbal, or electronic expression or a physical act or gesture or any combination thereof, directed at a target/victim that:

    1.  causes physical or emotional harm to the target/victim or damage to the target’s/victim’s property,
    2. places the target/victim in reasonable fear of harm to himself or herself or of damage to his or her property,
    3. creates a hostile environment at school for the target/victim,
    4. infringes on the rights of the target/victim at school, and/or
    5. materially and substantially disrupts the education process or the orderly operation of a school.

     

    Cyberbullying: Bullying through the use of technology or electronic devices, which shall include, but is not limited to any transfer of signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data or intelligence of any nature transmitted in whole or in part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic, photo electronic or photo optical system, including, but not limited to, electronic mail, internet communications, instant messages or facsimile communications. Devices could include, but are not limited to telephones, cell phones, computers and the internet. It includes, but is not limited to email, instant messages, text messages, internet postings, internet communications or facsimile communications. Cyber-bullying shall also include (i) the creation of a web page or blog in which the creator assumes the identity of another person or (ii) the knowing impersonation of another person as the author of posted content or messages, if the creation or impersonation creates any of the conditions enumerated in clauses (i) to (v), inclusive, of the definition of bullying. Cyber-bullying shall also include the distribution by electronic means of a communication to more than one person or the posting of material on an electronic medium that may be accessed by one or more persons, if the distribution or posting creates any of the conditions enumerated in clauses (i) to (v), inclusive, of the definition of bullying.

     

    Hostile Environment: As defined in M.G.L. Chapter 71 § 37O, this is a situation in which bullying causes the school environment to be permeated with intimidation, ridicule or insult that is sufficiently severe or pervasive to alter the conditions of a student’s education.  Retaliation is any form of intimidation, reprisal or harassment directed against a student who reports bullying, provides information during an investigation of bullying or witnesses or has reliable information about bullying.

     

    School Staff: Includes, but is not limited to educators, administrators, counselors, school nurses, cafeteria workers, custodians, bus drivers, athletic coaches, advisors to extracurricular activities, paraprofessionals or other school staff.

     

    Target/Victim: A student against whom bullying, cyberbullying or retaliation has been perpetrated.